The IEP must contain a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services to be provided to the child,
or on behalf of the child. We’ve split up the discussion of each of these important elements, because there is so much to say about each. This
article focuses on related services.
IDEA’S EXACT WORDS
Let’s start with IDEA’s full requirement for specifying a child’s related services in his or her IEP. This appears at §300.320(a)(4) and stipulates
that each child’s IEP must contain:
(4) A statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aids and services, based on peer-reviewed research to the extent
practicable, to be provided to the child, or on behalf of the child, and a statement of the program modifications or supports for school personnel
that will be provided to enable the child—
(i) To advance appropriately toward attaining the annual goals;
(ii) To be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section, and to participate
in extracurricular and other nonacademic activities; and
(iii) To be educated and participate with other children with disabilities and nondisabled children in the activities described in this section…
We’ve bolded the part of IDEA’s regulation that specifically mentions related services, because it’s important to see the context in which this
term is used. It is that context, and IDEA’s own definition of related services, that will guide how a child’s IEP team considers what related
services the child needs and the detail with which the team specifies them in the IEP.
RELATED SERVICES, IN BRIEF
Related services help children with disabilities benefit from their special education by providing extra help and support in needed areas, such
as speaking or moving. Related services can include, but are not limited to, any of the following:
- speech-language pathology and audiology services
- interpreting services
- psychological services
- physical and occupational therapy
- recreation, including therapeutic recreation
- early identification and assessment of disabilities in children
- counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling
- orientation and mobility services
- medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes
- school health services and school nurse services
- social work services in schools
- parent counseling and training
BEGINNING WITH EVALUATION
IDEA requires that a child be assessed in all areas related to his or her suspected disability. This evaluation must be sufficiently comprehensive
so as to identify all of the child’s special education and related services needs, whether or not those needs are commonly linked to the disability
category in which he or she has been classified.
DETERMINING WHAT RELATED SERVICES A STUDENT NEEDS
It is the IEP team’s responsibility to review all of the evaluation information, to identify any related services the child needs, and to include
them in the IEP. Goals can be written for a related service just as they are for other special education services. The IEP must also specify
with respect to each service:
- when the service will begin;
- how often it will be provided and for what amount of time; and
- where it will be provided. [§300.320(a)(7)]
Each child with a disability may not require all of the related services listed above. Furthermore, the list of related services is not exhaustive
and may include other developmental, corrective, or supportive services if they are required to assist a child with a disability to benefit
from special education. Examples include artistic and cultural programs, art, music, and dance therapy.
The IEP is a written commitment for the delivery of services to meet a student’s educational needs. A school district must ensure that all of the
related services specified in the IEP, including the amount, are provided to a student.
Changes in the amount of services listed in the IEP cannot be made without holding another IEP meeting. However, if there is no change in the overall
amount of service, some adjustments in the scheduling of services may be possible without the necessity of another IEP meeting.
RELATED SERVICES PERSONNEL ON THE IEP TEAM
IDEA does not expressly require that the IEP team include related services personnel. However, if a particular related service is going to be discussed
in an IEP meeting, it would be appropriate for such personnel to be included or otherwise involved in developing the IEP. IDEA states that,
at the discretion of the parent or the public agency, “other individuals who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the child, including
related services personnel as appropriate” may be part of a child’s IEP team.
DO PARENTS HAVE TO PAY FOR THE RELATED SERVICES THEIR CHILD RECEIVES?
No. School districts may not charge parents of eligible students with disabilities for the costs of related services that have been included on
the child’s IEP. Just as special and regular education must be provided to an eligible student with a disability at no cost to the parent or
guardian, so, too, must related services when the IEP team has determined that such services are required in order for the child to benefit
from his or her education.
RELATED SERVICES, IN DETAIL
To add detail to the “short story” above, let’s begin with the very first part of IDEA’s definition of related services at §300.34.
§300.34 Related services.
(a) General. Related services means transportation and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist
a child with a disability to benefit from special education, and includes…
This beginning represents the core of how IDEA defines related services. The term related services is typically spoken in the same breath as special
education (similar to how “peas and carrots” and “ham and eggs” go together) and, when used in IDEA, will always have the same meaning, including
the part of the definition we haven’t shown you yet, which picks up where the beginning leaves off…
…and includes speech-language pathology and audiology services, interpreting services, psychological services, physical and occupational
therapy, recreation, including therapeutic recreation, early identification and assessment of disabilities in children, counseling services,
including rehabilitation counseling, orientation and mobility services, and medical services for diagnostic or evaluation purposes. Related
services also include school health services and school nurse services, social work services in schools, and parent counseling and training.
Clearly, the list of related services is long–and, as already mentioned, the list is not exhaustive. These are just the services that IDEA specifically
mentions. As states respond to the requirements of federal law, many have legislated their own related service requirements, which may include
services beyond those specified in IDEA.
WHAT’S EXCLUDED AS A RELATED SERVICE
IDEA makes a specific exception to the list of related services: surgically implanted devices, including cochlear implants.
This exception is new with IDEA 2004 and shows the advance of time and technology. A relatively new technological development, the cochlear implant
is a “small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard-of-hearing.”
(National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 2017). While an implant does not restore normal hearing, it can give the
recipient “a useful representation of sounds in the environment and help him or her to understand speech” (Id.).
Cochlear implants are not the only surgically implanted devices. Others include: insulin pump, baclofen pump, pacemaker, G-tube, and vagus nerve
The exception. If a child has a surgically implanted device, the scope of the public agency’s responsibility to provide supportive related services
in relation to that device is covered in IDEA’s provisions at §300.34(b), its exception. Public agencies are not responsible for optimizing
these devices, maintaining them, or replacing them. Public agencies are responsible for “routine checking to determine if the external component
of a surgically implanted device is turned on and working” (71 Fed. Reg. 46570) and for providing other types of services the child needs,
as determined by the IEP team, including:
- assistive technology (e.g., FM system);
- proper classroom acoustical modifications;
- educational support services (e.g., educational interpreters); and
- receiving the related services (e.g., speech and language services) that are necessary for the child to benefit from special education services.
While public agencies are not responsible for mapping a cochlear implant, they do have a role to play in providing services and supports to help
children with cochlear implants. As the Department observes:
Particularly with younger children or children who have recently obtained implants, teachers and related services personnel frequently are the
first to notice changes in the child’s perception of sounds that the child may be missing. This may manifest as a lack of attention or understanding
on the part of the child or frustration in communicating. The changes may indicate a need for remapping, and we would expect that school personnel
would communicate with the child’s parents about these issues. To the extent that adjustments to the devices are required, a specially trained
professional would provide the remapping, which is not considered the responsibility of the public agency. (71 Fed. Reg. at 46570-1)
In many ways, the Department points out, there is no substantive difference between serving a child with a cochlear implant in a school setting
and serving a child with a hearing aid. A “public agency is responsible for the routine checking of the external components of a surgically
implanted device in much the same manner as a public agency is responsible for the proper functioning of hearing aids” (71 Fed. Reg. at 46571).
What distinguishes a service covered under the Act and one that is excluded is, in large measure, “the level of expertise required” (Id.).
Maintaining and monitoring a surgically implanted device require the expertise of a licensed physician or an individual with specialized technical
expertise beyond that typically available from school personnel. On the other hand:
Teachers and related services providers can be taught to first check the externally worn speech processor to make sure it is turned on, the volume
and sensitivity settings are correct, and the cable is connected, in much the same manner as they are taught to make sure a hearing aid is
properly functioning. To allow a child to sit in a classroom when the child’s hearing aid or cochlear implant is not functioning is to effectively
exclude the child from receiving an appropriate education. (Id.)
You’ll note that the exception in IDEA is carefully crafted to ensure that public agencies remain aware of, and responsible for, monitoring and
maintaining “medical devices that are needed to maintain the health and safety of the child, including breathing, nutrition, or operation of
other bodily functions, while the child is transported to and from school or is at school” (§300.34(b)(2)(ii)]. This clearly aligns with a
public agency’s responsibility for the health-related services (see discussion of Medical Services and School Health Services and School Nurse
Services further below).
THE INDIVIDUAL SERVICES, DEFINED
IDEA’s definition of related services also goes on to define each individual service. It’s drawn from our training curriculum Building the Legacy.
The services are discussed below in alphabetical order.
- Counseling services
- Early ID of disabilities
- Interpreting services
- Medical services
- Occupational therapy
- Orientation and mobility
- Parent counseling and training
- Physical therapy
- Psychological services
- Rehabilitation counseling
- School health services & school nurse services
- Social work services in schools
- Speech-language pathology
The definition of audiology as a related service appears at §300.34(c)(1) and reads:
(1) Audiology includes—
(i) Identification of children with hearing loss;
(ii) Determination of the range, nature, and degree of hearing loss, including referral for medical or other professional attention for the habilitation
(iii) Provision of habilitative activities, such as language habilitation, auditory training, speech reading (lip-reading), hearing evaluation,
and speech conservation;
(iv) Creation and administration of programs for prevention of hearing loss;
(v) Counseling and guidance of children, parents, and teachers regarding hearing loss; and
(vi) Determination of children’s needs for group and individual amplification, selecting and fitting an appropriate aid, and evaluating the effectiveness
of amplification. [§300.34(c)(1)]
Audiology is primarily provided to support the needs of children with hearing loss and includes (but is not limited to) key services such as determining
the range, nature, and degree of a child’s hearing loss and both group and individual needs for amplification. More than 77,000 children, ages
3-21, were served in the U.S. in 2013-2014 under IDEA’s category of hearing impairments (U.S. Department of Education, 2016).
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (2016) estimates that about 2 to 3 out of every 1,000 children in the United
States are born with a detectable level of hearing loss in one or both ears. Because it’s so important to identify and address childhood hearing
loss as early as possible, universal newborn hearing screening programs currently operate in all U.S. states and most U.S. territories (National
Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, 2017). With help from the federal government, every state has established an Early
Hearing Detection and Intervention program. Find your state’s contact for this program at: http://infanthearing.org/status/cnhs.php
Some schools have hearing screening programs and staff trained to conduct audiology screenings of children. Others may participate in regional
cooperatives or other arrangements that provide audiology services. Those school districts that do not have diagnostic facilities to evaluate
children for hearing loss and related communication problems or central auditory processing disorders may refer children to a clinical setting,
such as a hospital or audiology clinic, or make other contractual arrangements.
IDEA defines counseling services as follows:
(2) Counseling services means services provided by qualified social workers, psychologists, guidance counselors, or other qualified personnel.
According to the American School Counselor Association (n.d.), counseling services are intended to help all children in the areas of academic achievement,
personal/social development and career development. This can include helping children with personal and social concerns such as developing
self-knowledge, making effective decisions, learning health choices, and improving responsibility. Counselors may also help children with future
planning related to setting and reaching academic goals, developing a positive attitude toward learning, and recognizing and utilizing academic
Note that IDEA’s list of related services includes other counseling services—parent counseling and training; and rehabilitation counseling
(that is, counseling specific to career development and employment preparation). These are defined separately in IDEA and are clearly different
from counseling services (which are also not to be confused with psychological services).
Early Identification and Assessment of Disabilities in Children
This related service is defined at §300.34(c)(3) as follows:
(3) Early identification and assessment of disabilities in children means the implementation of a formal plan for identifying a disability as early
as possible in a child’s life.
The disability and medical fields are full of information about early identification of disabilities in children as well as assessing the scope
and impact of a child’s disability. This literature is focused on system-level issues such as setting up screening programs for specific disabilities
(e.g., autism, speech-language impairment, visual and hearing impairments) and establishing mechanisms within the educational system by which
children at risk of learning problems are quickly identified and their learning issues addressed.
As a related service, however, early identification and assessment of disability in children represents an individual service for one child. If
a child’s IEP team determines that identifying and assessing the nature of a child’s disability is necessary in order for the child to benefit
from his or her special education, then this related service must be listed in the child’s IEP and provided to the child by the public agency
at no cost to the parents. A formal plan would be written to establish the process and procedures by which the child’s disability will be identified.
This may seem strange—identifying the disability? Isn’t that one of the purposes of evaluation? True. But disability can elude diagnosis,
even as it adversely affects academic and functional performance in clear and measurable ways. Permitting states to adopt the term “developmental
delay” acknowledges that it’s not always possible to say what’s causing a learning or other problem, but that intervention is still necessary.
Early identification and assessment of disability in children, as a related service, acknowledges that continuing to search for and identify
the disability as early as possible in a child’s life may be necessary if the child is going to derive benefit from special education.
Interpreting services were added to IDEA’s list of related services in the 2004 reauthorization and are defined at §300.34(c)(4) as follows:
(4) Interpreting services includes—
(i) The following, when used with respect to children who are deaf or hard of hearing: Oral transliteration services, cued language transliteration
services, sign language transliteration and interpreting services, and transcription services, such as communication access real-time translation
(CART), C-Print, and TypeWell; and
(ii) Special interpreting services for children who are deaf-blind. [§300.34(c)(4)]
Interpreting services may be new to IDEA’s definition of related services, but they are been provided over the years to many children who are deaf
or hard of hearing, as part of providing them with access to instruction. The definition of interpreting services indicates a range of possible
such services (e.g., oral transliteration, cued language), all of which refer to specific communication systems used within the deaf and hard-of-hearing
Medical services are considered a related service only under specific conditions: when they are provided (a) by a licensed physician, and (b) for
diagnostic or evaluation purposes only. This is clear from the definition at §300.34(c)(5):
(5) Medical services means services provided by a licensed physician to determine a child’s medically related disability that results in the child’s
need for special education and related services.
This related service has a long and interesting history that has only gotten more interesting as medical science has advanced and children with
diverse medical conditions are being educated in increasing numbers in general education classrooms. The support that many such children need
in order to attend school, school districts have argued, is medical in nature, complex and continual, and is not the responsibility of public
agencies because IDEA clearly states that medical services are allowable related services only when provided for diagnostic or evaluation purposes.
The case of Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F., which took place in 1999, turned the gray line about the provision of related
services to children with complex medical needs into a “bright line” (“Supreme Court adopts,” 1999). The U.S. Supreme Court found that, if
a related service is required to enable a qualified child with a disability to remain in school, it must be provided as long as it is not a
purely “medical” service. What is considered “medical,” as IDEA’s definition amply indicates, are those services that can only be provided
by a licensed physician (and only for the purposes of diagnosis or evaluation). If a non-physician can deliver the services, then the service
must be provided by public agencies, regardless of the staffing or fiscal burdens they may impose. Health care services that can be provided
by a non-physician are not provided under the category of medical services, however. Today they would be as considered school health services
and school nurse services. Examples of such services include bladder catheterization, tracheostomy tube suctioning, positioning, and monitoring
of ventilator settings, to name a few.
The term occupational therapy (OT) is defined in IDEA at §300.34(c)(6) as follows:
(6) Occupational therapy—
(i) Means services provided by a qualified occupational therapist; and
(A) Improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or lost through illness, injury, or deprivation;
(B) Improving ability to perform tasks for independent functioning if functions are impaired or lost; and
(C) Preventing, through early intervention, initial or further impairment or loss of function.
OT services can enhance a child’s ability to function in an educational program and may include such services as:
- self-help skills or adaptive living (e.g., eating, dressing);
- functional mobility (e.g., moving safely through school);
- positioning (e.g., sitting appropriately in class);
- sensory-motor processing (e.g., using the senses and muscles);
- fine motor (e.g., writing, cutting) and gross motor performance (e.g., walking, athletic skills);
- life skills training/vocational skills; and
- psychosocial adaptation.
Orientation and Mobility Services
We’re getting there! Almost through with the O’s!
Orientation and mobility services (O&M) became part of IDEA’s list of related services with IDEA ’97. They are defined at §300.34(c)(7) and
even a brief read makes it clear that O&M services are intended for children who are blind or visually impaired, with the purpose of teaching
them how to orient themselves in a range of environments (school, home, community) and to move safely within those environments.
(7) Orientation and mobility services—
(i) Means services provided to blind or visually impaired children by qualified personnel to enable those students to attain systematic orientation
to and safe movement within their environments in school, home, and community; and
(ii) Includes teaching children the following, as appropriate:
(A) Spatial and environmental concepts and use of information received by the senses (such as sound, temperature and vibrations) to establish,
maintain, or regain orientation and line of travel (e.g., using sound at a traffic light to cross the street);
(B) To use the long cane or a service animal to supplement visual travel skills or as a tool for safely negotiating the environment for children
with no available travel vision;
(C) To understand and use remaining vision and distance low vision aids; and
(D) Other concepts, techniques, and tools. [§300.34(c)(7)]
O&M services are not intended for children with disabilities other than visual impairments. If such a child needs to learn how to safely navigate
a variety of settings, that child would generally not receive O&M services but, rather, travel training. Travel training is included in
the definition of special education and means providing instruction to children with significant cognitive disabilities, and any other children
with disabilities who require this instruction, to enable them to develop an awareness of the environment in which they live and learn the
skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place [§300.39(b)(4)].
Parent Counseling and Training
Parent counseling and training is an important related service that can help parents enhance the vital role they play in the lives of their children.
Its definition is found at §300.34(c)(8) and reads:
(8)(i) Parent counseling and training means assisting parents in understanding the special needs of their child;
(ii) Providing parents with information about child development; and
(iii) Helping parents to acquire the necessary skills that will allow them to support the implementation of their child’s IEP or IFSP.
The first two parts of this definition are longstanding in IDEA. The last part—regarding helping parents acquire the necessary skills that
will allow them to support the implementation of their child’s IEP or IFSP—was added in IDEA ’97 “to recognize the more active role of
parents as participants in the education of their children” (71 Fed. Reg. at 46573) and is retained in IDEA 2004. As with all related services,
parent counseling and training would only be provided to parents “if a child’s IEP team determines that it is necessary for the child to receive
IDEA defines physical therapy as “services provided by a qualified physical therapist” [§300.34(c)(9)]. These services generally address a child’s
posture, muscle strength, mobility, and organization of movement in educational environments. Physical therapy may be provided to prevent the
onset or progression of impairment, functional limitation, disability, or changes in physical function or health resulting from injury, disease,
or other causes.
Now here comes a longish definition! IDEA defines psychological services at §300.34(c)(10) as follows:
(10) Psychological services includes—
(i) Administering psychological and educational tests, and other assessment procedures;
(ii) Interpreting assessment results;
(iii) Obtaining, integrating, and interpreting information about child behavior and conditions relating to learning;
(iv) Consulting with other staff members in planning school programs to meet the special educational needs of children as indicated by psychological
tests, interviews, direct observation, and behavioral evaluations;
(v) Planning and managing a program of psychological services, including psychological counseling for children and parents; and
(vi) Assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies.
Psychological services are delivered as a related service when necessary to help eligible children with disabilities benefit from their special
education. In some schools, these services are provided by a school psychologist, but some services are also appropriately provided by other
trained personnel, including school social workers and counselors.
You may notice that counseling is mentioned in the definition of this related service, and is also mentioned in IDEA’s definition of social work
services (specifically, group and individual counseling with the child and family). In response to public comments questioning this, the Department
Including counseling in the definition of social work services in schools in §300.34(c)(14) is intended to indicate the types of personnel who
assist in this activity and is not intended either to imply that school social workers are automatically qualified to perform counseling or
to prohibit other qualified personnel from providing counseling, consistent with State requirements. (71 Fed. Reg. at 46573-4]
Further, the definition of psychological services uses the phrase “planning and managing a program of psychological services”—which includes
“psychological counseling for children and parents.” The more administrative nature of “planning and managing” is a telling difference in how
counseling is included in the definitions of these two related services.
IDEA’s definition of psychological services also specifically mentions positive behavioral intervention strategies, often referred to as PBS or
PBIS. Behavior is an area of great concern these days, and it’s useful to know that many of IDEA’s provisions support taking a proactive approach
to addressing behavior that interferes with a child’s learning or the learning of others. For such a child, the IEP team must consider, if
appropriate, strategies (including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports) to address that behavior [§300.324(2)(i)].
The fact that psychological services can include “assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies” does not mean that only
the professionals who provide psychological services may provide such assistance or that they are even necessarily qualified to do so. As the
There are many professionals who might also play a role in developing and delivering positive behavioral intervention strategies. The standards
for personnel who assist in developing and delivering positive behavioral intervention strategies will vary depending on the requirements of
the State. Including the development and delivery of positive behavioral intervention strategies in the definition of psychological services
is not intended to imply that school psychologists are automatically qualified to perform these duties or to prohibit other qualified personnel
from providing these services, consistent with State requirements. (71 Fed. Reg. at 46574)
We’re to the R’s, making slow but sure progress through IDEA’s list of related services. Recreation as a related service is defined at §300.34(c)(11)
(11) Recreation includes—
(i) Assessment of leisure function;
(ii) Therapeutic recreation services;
(iii) Recreation programs in schools and community agencies; and
(iv) Leisure education.
Recreation services generally are intended to help children with disabilities learn how to use their leisure and recreation time constructively.
Through these services, children can learn appropriate and functional recreation and leisure skills. Recreational activities may be provided
during the school day or in after-school programs in a school or a community environment. Some school districts have made collaborative arrangements
with the local parks and recreation programs or local youth development programs to provide recreational services.
As part of providing this related service, persons qualified to provide recreation carry out activities such as:
- assessing a child’s leisure interests and preferences, capacities, functions, skills, and needs;
- improving physical functioning, including using activities to develop locomotor skills, balance, coordination, motor planning, strength and
endurance, object control skills, and eye/hand coordination;
- improving cognitive functioning with therapeutic activities that improve attention span, problem solving, decision making skills, and creative
- improving behavioral functioning with therapeutic activities that improve anger/frustration control, respect for others and self, trust issues,
stress management, relaxation training, and team building skills; and
- providing instruction in leisure education to develop the skills necessary for independence in recreational participation. (American Therapeutic
Recreation Association, n.d.)
And here is another related service that specifically mentions counseling. Rehabilitation counseling, however, uses such key terms as employment,
career, and independence, which narrows the focus of the counseling and the purpose for which it is provided. The definition reads:
(12) Rehabilitation counseling services means services provided by qualified personnel in individual or group sessions that focus specifically
on career development, employment preparation, achieving independence, and integration in the workplace and community of a student with a disability.
The term also includes vocational rehabilitation services provided to a student with a disability by vocational rehabilitation programs funded
under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, 29 U.S.C. 701 et seq. [§300.34(c)(12)]
Wondering about the reference to vocational rehabilitation (VR)? VR is a nationwide federal-state program for assisting eligible people with disabilities
to define a suitable employment goal and become employed. Each state has a central VR agency, and there are local offices in most states. VR
provides medical, therapeutic, counseling, education, training, and other services needed to prepare people with disabilities for work. VR
is an excellent place for a youth or adult with a disability to begin exploring available training and support service options. For more information
on VR programs funded under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and where the central VR office is located in your state, visit the Job Accommodation
Network, at: https://askjan.org/cgi-win/TypeQuery.exe?902
School Health Services and School Nurse Services
School health services have long been a part of IDEA’s related services definition. In IDEA 2004, the term has been changed to school health services
and school nurse services, with the following definition at §300.34(c)(13):
(13) School health services and school nurse services means health services that are designed to enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE
as described in the child’s IEP. School nurse services are services provided by a qualified school nurse. School health services are services
that may be provided by either a qualified school nurse or other qualified person.
Returning to an issue that was raised under Medical Services, many children with disabilities, especially those who are medically fragile, could
not attend school without the supportive services of school nurses and other qualified people. Over the years, the extent of the health-related
services that are provided in schools has grown, as might be expected when you consider medical advances in the last decade alone. In Cedar
Rapids Community School District v. Garret F., the question of whether or not public agencies are responsible for providing health-related
supports that are complex or continuous was settled. They are, “only to the extent that the services allow a child to benefit from special
education and enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE” (71 Fed. Reg. at 46574-5). What was previously called “school health services”
in IDEA has been expanded to distinguish between services that are provided by a qualified nurse and those that may be provided by other qualified
States and local school districts often have guidelines that address school health services and school nurse services. These may include providing
such health-related support as:
- special feedings;
- clean intermittent catheterization;
- the management of a tracheostomy;
- administering and/or dispensing medications;
- planning for the safety of a child in school;
- ensuring that care is given while at school and at school functions to prevent injury (e.g., changing a child’s position frequently to prevent
- chronic disease management; and
- conducting and/or promoting education and skills training for all (including the child) who serve as caregivers in the school setting.
Social Work Services in Schools
Issues or problems at home or in the community can adversely affect a child’s performance at school, as can a child’s attitude or behavior in school.
Social work services in schools may become necessary in order to help a child benefit from his or her educational program. They are also a
familiar related service, included in IDEA from its early days, and are currently defined at §300.34(c)(14) as follows:
(14) Social work services in schools includes—
(i) Preparing a social or developmental history on a child with a disability;
(ii) Group and individual counseling with the child and family;
(iii) Working in partnership with parents and others on those problems in a child’s living situation (home, school, and community) that affect
the child’s adjustment in school;
(iv) Mobilizing school and community resources to enable the child to learn as effectively as possible in his or her educational program; and
(v) Assisting in developing positive behavioral intervention strategies. [§300.34(c)(14)]
Speech-language pathology services are provided by speech-language professionals and speech-language assistants, in accordance with state regulations,
to address the needs of children and youth with disabilities affecting either speech or language. IDEA defines this related service at §300.34(c)(15)
(15) Speech-language pathology services includes—
(i) Identification of children with speech or language impairments;
(ii) Diagnosis and appraisal of specific speech or language impairments;
(iii) Referral for medical or other professional attention necessary for the habilitation of speech or language impairments;
(iv) Provision of speech and language services for the habilitation or prevention of communicative impairments; and
(v) Counseling and guidance of parents, children, and teachers regarding speech and language impairments.
Speech-language pathology services are longstanding related services in IDEA. They are also crucial in the education of many children with disabilities.
More than 1.3 million children were served under the disability category of “speech or language impairments” in the school year 2013-14 (U.S.
Department of Education, 2016).
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Transportation is included in an eligible child’s IEP if the IEP team determines that such a service is needed in order for the child to benefit
from his or her special education. The term has a specific meaning. IDEA defines transportation as:
- travel to and from school and between schools;
- travel in and around school buildings; and
- specialized equipment (such as special or adapted buses, lifts, and ramps), if required to provide special transportation for a child with
a disability. [§300.34(c)(17)]
The last bullet isn’t just talking about a separate bus that only children with disabilities ride to school. The Department of Education states,
“It is assumed that most children with disabilities will receive the same transportation provided to nondisabled children” (Id.), in keeping
with LRE requirements. Thus, transportation as a related services may also mean providing modifications and supports so that a child may ride
the regular school bus transporting children without disabilities. (71 Fed. Reg. at 46576).
As part of longstanding OSEP policy and numerous written policy letters, memos, and summaries, public school districts must provide transportation
to children with disabilities in two situations. These are:
- if a district provides transportation to and from school for the general student population, then it must provide transportation for a child
with a disability; and
- if a school district does not provide transportation for the general student population, then the issue of transportation for children with
disabilities must be decided on a case-by-case basis if the IEP Team has determined that transportation is needed by the child and has
included it on his or her IEP.
Not all children with disabilities are eligible to receive transportation as a related service. A child’s need for transportation as a related
service and the type of transportation to be provided must be discussed and decided by the IEP team. If the team determines that the child
needs this related service to benefit from her or her special education, a statement to that effect must be included in the IEP, along with
relevant details and arrangements.
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That was quite a list, wasn’t it? You no doubt now have a very good sense of how extensive, well-thought-out, and important related services actually
are for children with disabilities who need them. It’s no wonder the term so often appears with its buddy, special education.
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American School Counselor Association. (n.d.). Role of the school counselor. Alexandria, VA: Author. Retrieved November 1, 2017 from: https://www.schoolcounselor.org/administrators/role-of-the-school-counselor.aspx
American Therapeutic Recreation Association. (n.d.). Information sheet: Recreational therapy and school systems. Hattiesburg, MS: Author. Available
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Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garrett F, 526 U.S. 66 (1999). Available online at: www.wrightslaw.com/law/caselaw/case_Cedar_Rapids_SupCt_990303.htm
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